Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cable

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Optical Fiber is a transmission line or a kind of cable made of glass or plastic that is very smooth and smaller than a hair, and can be used to transmit light signals from one place to another. Light source used is usually laser or LED. This cable is approximately 120 micrometers in diameter. The light inside the optical fiber does not come out because the refractive index of the glass is larger than the refractive index of the air, because the laser has a very narrow spectrum. The optical fiber transmission speed is so high that it is great for use as a communication channel.

The development of current optical fiber technology, has been able to produce attenuation of less than 20 decibels (dB) / km. With a large bandwidth (bandwidth) so that the ability to transmit data into more and faster than the use of conventional cables. Thus, optical fibers are particularly suitable for use in telecommunication system applications. In principle, optical fiber reflects and refracts the amount of light that travels within it.

Fiber Optic Cable

The efficiency of the optical fiber is determined by the purity of the glass / glass composer. The purer the glass material, the less light is absorbed by the optical fiber.

History Fiber Optic Cable

The use of light as a carrier of information has actually been widely used since ancient times, just around the 1930s German scientists began experimenting to transmit light through materials called fiber optics. This experiment is also still quite primitive because the results achieved can not be directly utilized, but must go through further development and refinement. A further development was when British scientists in 1958 proposed a prototype of optical fibers that have been used today, consisting of glass core wrapped by other glasses. Around the early 1960s a fantastic change took place in Asia when Japanese scientists managed to create a type of optical fiber capable of transmitting images.

On the other hand, scientists besides trying to guide light pass through glass (optical fiber) but also try to "tame" the light. The hard work was successful when about 1959 laser was invented. The laser operates at a visible frequency area of ​​about 1014 Hertz-15 Hertz or hundreds of thousands of times the microwave frequency.

At first laser-generating equipment is still large and troublesome. Besides being inefficient, it can only function at very low temperatures. The laser also has not radiated straight. In very bright light conditions too, the jets easily twist to follow the density of the atmosphere. At that time, a laser beam within a distance of 1 km, can arrive at the final destination at many points with a distance deviation up to a meter count.

Around the early 60's there was an extremely high purity optical fiber, less than 1 part in a million. In ordinary language it means that the very clear and non-conducting fibers are so pure, so it is said that if the seawater was as pure as the optical fiber, with enough normal eye lighting would be able to watch the inhabitants of the Pacific Ocean basin.

Like lasers, optical fibers must go through the early developmental stages. As the light transmission medium, it is very inefficient. Until 1968 or two years after the first optical fiber was predicted to be a light guide, the rate of attenuation (loss) was still 20 dB / km. Through development in material technology, optical fibers undergo refining, dehydran and others. Slowly but surely the attenuation reaches a level below 1 dB / km.

Chronology of Optical Fiber Development

1917 Albert Einstein introduces a stimulated stimulation theory where if there are atoms in high energy levels

1954 Charles Townes, James Gordon, and Herbert Zeiger of Columbia University USA, developed a macer that is a microwave amplifier with a stimulated emission, in which molecules of gasamonia amplify and produce electromagnetic waves. This work took three years from the Townes idea in 1951 to benefit from high-frequency molecular oscillations to generate wavelengths with short wavelengths on radio waves.

1958 Charles Townes and physicist Arthur Schawlow publish his research showing that masers can be made to operate in infrared and visible regions, and explain the concept of lasers.

1960 Research Laboratories Bell and Ali Javan and colleagues William Bennett, Jr., and Donald Herriott discovered a continuous operation of the helium-neon laser.

1960 Theodore Maiman, an electronics physicist and engineer from Hughes Research Laboratories, invented the laser source using a synthetic ruby ​​crystals as a medium.

1961 Industry researcher Elias Snitzer and Will Hicks demonstrate laser light directed through a thin glass fiber (optical fiber). The glass fiber core is small enough that light can only pass one part but many scientists claim that the fiber is not suitable for communication because of the light loss that occurs because it passes a great distance.

1961 The use of laser-produced ruby ​​laser at Charles Campbell of the Institute of Ophthalmology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and Charles Koester of the American Optical Corporation used a prototype ruby ​​laser photocoagulator to destroy tumors in the patient's retina.

1962 Three renowned research groups, General Electric, IBM, and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory simultaneously developed gallium arsenide lasers that convert listrk energy directly into infrared light and subsequent developments used for CD and DVD development along with the use of laser printers.

1963 Physicist Herbert Kroemer proposes the idea of ​​heterostructures, a combination of more than one semiconductor in layers to reduce energy requirements for lasers and help to work more efficiently. These heterostructures will be used on cell phones and other electronic equipment.

1966 Charles Kao and George Hockham conducting research at Standard Telecommunications Laboratories UK published his research on the ability of optical fibers to transmit laser lights with very little loss by using very pure glass fibers. From this discovery, the researchers focused more on how to purify the glass fiber material.